Der Keirsey Temperament Test
Keirsey Temperament Sorter II Results
Your Temperament is Rational : NT
Your variant temperament is Mastermind : INTJ
RATIONAL NTs, being ABSTRACT in communicating and
UTILITARIAN in implementing goals, can become highly
skilled in STRATEGIC ANALYSIS. Thus their most practiced
and developed intelligent operations tend to be marshalling
and planning (NTJ organizing), or inventing and configuring
(NTP engineering). And they would if they could be wizards
in one of these forms of rational operation. They are proud
of themselves in the degree they are competent in action,
respect themselves in the degree they are autonomous, and
feel confident of themselves in the degree they are strong
willed. Ever in search of knowledge, this is the "Knowledge
Seeking Personality" -- trusting in reason and hungering
for achievement. They are usually pragmatic about the
present, skeptical about the future, solipsistic about the
past, and their preferred time and place are the interval
and the intersection. Educationally they go for the
sciences, avocationally for technology, and vocationally
for systems work. Rationals tend to be individualizing as
parents, mindmates as spouses, and learning oriented as
children. Rationals are very infrequent, comprising as few
as 5% and no more than 7% of the population.
Your variant temperament is Mastermind : INTJ
The Portrait of the Mastermind (iNTj)
Of the four aspects of strategic analysis and definition it
is the contingency planning or entailment organizing role
that reaches the highest development in Masterminds.
Entailing or contingency planning is not an informative
activity, rather it is a directive one in which the planner
tells others what to do and in what order to do it. As the
organizing capabilities the Masterminds increase so does
their inclination to take charge of whatever is going on.
It is in their abilities that Masterminds differ from the
other Rationals, while in most of their attitudes they are
just like the others.
However there is one attitude that sets them apart from
other Rationals: they tend to be much more self-confident
than the rest, having, for obscure reasons, developed a
very strong will. They are rather rare, comprising no more
than, say, one percent of the population. Being very
judicious, decisions come naturally to them; indeed, they
can hardly rest until they have things settled, decided,
and set. They are the people who are able to formulate
coherent and comprehensive contingency plans, hence
contingency organizers or "entailers."
Masterminds will adopt ideas only if they are useful, which
is to say if they work efficiently toward accomplishing the
Mastermind's well-defined goals.
Natural leaders, Masterminds are not at all eager to take
command of projects or groups, preferring to stay in the
background until others demonstrate their inability to
Once in charge, however, Masterminds are the supreme
pragmatists, seeing reality as a crucible for refining
their strategies for goal-directed action. In a sense,
Masterminds approach reality as they would a giant chess
board, always seeking strategies that have a high payoff,
and always devising contingency plans in case of error or
To the Mastermind, organizational structure and operational
procedures are never arbitrary, never set in concrete, but
are quite malleable and can be changed, improved,
In their drive for efficient action, Masterminds are the
most open-minded of all the types. No idea is too far-
fetched to be entertained-if it is useful.
Masterminds are natural brainstormers, always open to new
concepts and, in fact, aggressively seeking them. They are
also alert to the consequences of applying new ideas or
positions. Theories which cannot be made to work are
quickly discarded by the Masterminds.
On the other hand, Masterminds can be quite ruthless in
implementing effective ideas, seldom counting personal cost
in terms of time and energy.
Attentiv 9 - Expressive 1
Introspective 6 - Observant 4
Tender 1 - Tought 8
Probing 2 - Scheduled 7
ATTENTIV 9 - EXPRESSIVE 1
Extraversion or Introversion (E/I)
RESERVED persons tend to hold their fire verbally, they
tend to listen carefully to what others say, while
EXPRESSIVE persons tend not to listen very well, so eager
are they to tell others of what they have on their minds.
So in general, the Expressive are quick to speak and slow
to listen, while the Reserved are quick to listen and slow
A metaphor might shed light on this difference. Imagine
that a person's energy is powered by batteries. Given this,
then Expressive persons (ESTPs, ENFJs, etc.) appear to be
energized, charged up, by contact with other people. Owing
to the surge they get when in company, they are quick to
approach others, even strangers, and talk to them, finding
this an easy and pleasant thing to do, and something they
don't want to do without. Such interaction apparently
charges their batteries and makes them feel alive. Thus,
when they leave a lively party at two o'clock in the
morning, they might well be ready to go on to another one.
Their batteries are almost overcharged, having received so
much stimulation from the social interaction. In fact,
quiet and seclusion actually exhaust the Expressive, and
they report feelings of loneliness (or power drain) when
they are not in contact with others. For example, if an
Expressive person goes to a library to do research in the
stacks, he or she may, after fifteen minutes or so, feel
bored and tired, and have to exercise strong will-power to
keep from taking a short brain break and striking up a
conversation with the librarian.
On the other hand, RESERVED PERSONS (ISFJs, INTJs, etc.)
CAN BE SAID TO DRAW ENERGY FROM A DIFFERENT SOURCE. THEY
PREFER TO PURSUE SOLITARY ACTIVITIES, WORKING QUIETLY ALONE
WITH THEIR FAVORED PROJECT OR HOBBY, HOWEVER SIMPLE OR
COMPLICATED IT MAY BE, AND SUCH ISOLATED ACTIVITIES ARE
WHAT SEEM TO CHARGE THEIR BATTERIES.
Indeed, the Reserved can remain only so long in contact
with others before their energies are depleted. If required
by their job, family, or social responsibilities to be
expressive or outgoing -- to make a great interpersonal
effort -- they are soon exhausted and need alone time in
quiet places to rest and to restore their depleted energy.
Thus, if Reserved persons go to a noisy cocktail party,
after a short period of time -- say, half an hour -- they
are ready to go home. For them, the party is over, their
batteries are drained.
This is not to say that the Reserved do not like to be
around people. They enjoy socializing with others, but at
large social gatherings or professional meetings they tend
to seek out a quiet corner where they can chat with one or
two other persons.
There is some social bias toward expressiveness in American
social life, but Reserved persons have no reason to feel
that there is anything wrong with them, and should be sure
to provide adequately for their legitimate desire for quiet
time to themselves.
INTROSPEKTIVE 6 - OBSERVANT 4
Sensation or Intuition (S/N)
Carl Jung used the words "sensation" and "sensing" (S) to
mean paying attention to what is going on outside
ourselves, that is, external attention. Thus "sensation"
may be used synonymously with three words pertaining to
external attention,"OBSERVATION", "externalization,"
In contrast, Jung gave us two engaging metaphors to convey
how he used the word "intuition" (N). Intuition, he said,
is "listening to the inner voice" or "heeding the
promptings from within." The word "intuition" is engaging
because it literally means "internal attention." We pay
attention to what is going on inside ourselves with our
mind's eye and our mind's ear, these promptings coming as
thoughts and feelings.
Thus "intuition" can be used synonymously with three other
terms pertaining to internal
attention, "INTROSPECTION" "internalization,"
and "interoception." So we can contrast "introspection"
with "observation," "internalization"
with "externalization," and "interoception"
For the purposes of describing personality types, I have
found the easiest and most accurate terms to
be "introspection" and "observation."
Very simply, we observe objects through our senses. Thus we
look at objects to see them, listen to sounds to hear them,
touch surfaces to feel them, sniff odors to smell them, and
mouth substances to taste them. We can observe what is
present, but not what isn't present. Whatever isn't present
to our senses we can only imagine by means of
Naturally, all of us do both observation and introspection,
but it is a rare individual who does an equal amount of
each. The vast majority of us, maybe 85%, spend most of our
waking hours looking at, listening to, and touching objects
in our immediate presence, and very little of our time
introspecting, that is, making inferences, imagining,
daydreaming, musing, or wondering about things not in our
The point not to be missed is that we cannot do these
things simultaneously. When we observe what's going on
around us, we cannot at the same time observe what's going
on within us. We may alternate our attention, but we cannot
divide it. Some of us, from infancy on, seem to be more
raptly attentive to inner promptings, others, to outer
The reason for this difference in attention is not at all
clear, and certainly it is a matter of conjecture. But if
the reason for this preference in attention is obscure, the
consequences of it are not. Those of us who attend inwardly
much of the time as children strengthen that preference,
our inner voice becoming louder and clearer, our inner
promptings more vivid and complex. Likewise, those of us
who heed the external much of the time come to see and hear
objects in more detail and with greater specificity.
In turn, Introspectors (NTs and NFs) tend to be more
content when these concrete concerns are handled by someone
else and they are left free to consider the more abstract
world of ideas.
This does not mean, of course, that Observer types are
without an inner life -- far from it -- but simply that
their introspection takes a back seat to their observation.
Nor does this mean that Introspector types are unaware of
the objects around them -- not at all -- but simply that
they are more inclined to become absorbed in their ideas.
To put this difference another way, OBSERVERS MIGHT BE
CALLED "EARTHLINGS" OR "TERRESTRIALS," CONCRETE, DOWN TO
EARTH BEINGS WHO KEEP THEIR FEET ON THE GROUND. These
persons see what is in front of them and are usually
accurate in catching details. It is said that "they don't
miss much." OBSERVERS WANT FACTS, TRUST FACTS, AND REMEMBER
FACTS, and they want to deal with the facts of a situation
as they are, either in the here and now, or as recorded in
the past. They focus on what is happening, or what has
happened, rather than anticipating what might be, what
would happen if, or what might occur in the future.
In contrast, INTROSPECTORS MIGHT BE
CALLED "EXTRATERRESTRIALS," ABSTRACT BEINGS WHO LIVE WITH
THEIR HEAD IN THE CLOUDS, STRANGERS IN A STRANGE LAND who
wonder about the curious antics of the earthlings. Absorbed
as they often are in their internal world, Introspectors
tend miss a great deal of what's right around them --
CURRENT REALITY IS MERELY A PROBLEM TO BE SOLVED, OR A
STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT TOWARD SOME FUTURE IDEAL.
Not only can they miss details, they can also lose track of
where they are, and for instance drive right past their
highway turn-off. "It's only reality" they sometimes say,
to register their relative disinterest in the merely
concrete. BUT MORE THAN DISINTEREST, INTROSPECTORS CAN BE
DISCONTENT WITH REALITY, EVEN BOTHERED BY IT, AND SPECULATE
ABOUT POSSIBLE WAYS OF IMPROVING IT.
Because of their tenuous grasp of reality, Introspectors
can appear to Observers as flighty, impractical, and
unrealistic -- the dreamer or absent-minded professor who
can't be bothered with the nitty-gritty of living. For
their part, Observers can seem to Introspectors as
unimaginative, concerned only with trivial pursuits, and
exasperatingly slow to consider implications and
possibilities. Both views are exaggerations. Indeed, both
kinds of people are capable and even creative in their own
way -- it's just that they attend to very different sides
of life, with the other side getting short-changed.
Thus OBSERVERS CAN MANAGE THE MATERIAL WORLD WITH SKILL,
but the penalty they pay for ignoring the promptings from
within is that these promptings can gradually fade away,
and they may end up with relatively undeveloped
introspective abilities. They may now and then introspect,
but not for long and with little pleasure.
On the other hand, INTROSPECTORS PRACTICE INTROSPECTION
MUCH OF THEIR TIME, AND WITH PLEASURE, but the penalty they
pay for this is that they can end up with relatively
undeveloped observational abilities.
The two ways are not mutually exclusive. Introspectors have
no choice but to turn outward at times and concern
themselves with the business of everyday living, while
Observers do occasionally look inward to ponder, and dream,
and make inferences. Such excursions can even be
stimulating and satisfying, but neither type can be in both
worlds at once, and each will usually show a strong
preference for one over the other. For both types, the
vitality, the immediacy, and the significance of life is
found more easily in their own world, while what is central
to the other's world seems relatively foreign,
uninteresting, and unimportant.
TENDER 1 - TOUGH 8
Thinking or Feeling (T/F)
Everybody has thoughts (T) and feelings (F) but some pay
more attention to their thoughts than to their feelings
while others pay more attention to their feelings than to
their thoughts. Those who attend mainly to their thoughts
are said to govern themselves with their head, their
concepts and percepts being their guides to action. In
contrast, those who pay more attention to their feelings
are said to follow their heart, which means that much of
what they do is based on emotion or desire. If we use a
distinction made by the great pragmatist William James,
some people are more "tough-minded" and others more "tender-
minded." But if we note the words Myers used in her type
portraits, we see that her distinction is between those who
can be called "tough-minded" and those who can be
THE TOUGH-MINDED ARE OFTEN ACCUSED OF
BEING "INHUMAN," "HEARTLESS," "STONY-HEARTED," "REMOTE," OF
HAVING 'ICE IN THEIR VEINS," AND OF LIVING "WITHOUT THE
MILK OF HUMAN KINDNESS."
In the same way, THE FRIENDLY ARE CHIDED FOR BEING "TOO
SOFT-HEARTED," "TOO EMOTIONAL," "BLEEDING-
HEARTS," "MUDDLEHEADED," "FUZZY-THINKERS," AND FOR "WEARING
THEIR HEART ON THEIR SLEEVE."
Another polarizing (and inaccurate) stereotype is that the
Friendly types have more and deeper emotions than the Tough-
minded types -- one side is seen as sensitive and warm-
hearted, and the other seen as insensitive and cold-
Here again, however, the truth is that both react
emotionally with similar frequency and intensity, the
difference being a matter of display. THE FRIENDLY TEND TO
MAKE THEIR EMOTIONS AND WISHES QUITE VISIBLE AND AUDIBLE,
SO OTHERS SEE THEM AS CAPABLE OF DEEP FEELINGS. To be sure,
when they show their feelings, others cannot help being
affected, their own emotions even aroused by the display.
THE TOUGH-MINDED, IN CONTRAST, ARE EMBARRASSED BY AN
EXHIBITION OF INTENSE FEELING, AND WILL HIDE THEIR FEELINGS
RATHER THAN BE SEEN AS LOSING SELF-CONTROL. Because of
this, they are often described as "cold" and "indifferent,"
when in fact they are feeling something quite strongly --
only working hard to contain themselves.
When they can get past the stereotypes, these two
orientations usually find they can complement each other
quite well, whether in business or in marriage, with the
Tough-minded partner providing a source of clarity and
toughness, and the Friendly partner providing a source of
compassion and personal consideration.
PROBING 2 - SCHEDULED 7
Judgment or Perception (J/P)
Myers claimed that she confined her usage of the
word "judgment" (J) to mean "coming to a conclusion," but
again and again she used "judgment" to describe people who
make and keep schedules in their daily lives. Myers also
used the word "perception" (P) to describe people who
prefer to probe for options and thus not be tied to a
In other words, SCHEDULERS ARE JUDICIOUS ABOUT SCHEDULES,
PROBERS PERCEPTIVE OF OPTIONS.
SCHEDULERS MAKE AGENDAS, TIMETABLES, PROGRAMS, LISTS,
SYLLABI, CALENDARS, OUTLINES, REGISTERS, AND SO ON, FOR
THEMSELVES AND OTHERS TO FOLLOW;
PROBERS KEEP THEIR EYES OPEN FOR CHANCES TO DO THINGS THEY
WANT TO, FOR OPPORTUNITIES AND ALTERNATIVES THEY MIGHT
AVAIL THEMSELVES OF.
Each orientation has problems. By committing themselves to
a set agenda, SCHEDULERS TEND TO STOP LOOKING FOR
ALTERNATIVES AND OPTIONS AND SO MAY NEVER KNOW WHAT THEY'RE
By keeping their options open PROBERS ARE RELUCTANT TO
COMMIT THEMSELVES TO SCHEDULES AND SO ARE INCLINED TO MISS
DEADLINES AND LEAVE TASKS UNFINISHED.
Unfortunately, the difference between Schedulers and
Probers can be a source of irritation in personal
relationships, both in the home and the workplace, the
latter where opposites must work together to accomplish a
SCHEDULERS, WHETHER OBSERVANT OR INTROSPECTIVE, TEND TO
BELIEVE THAT ONE'S WORK COMES BEFORE ALL ELSE, AND MUST BE
FINISHED BEFORE ONE RESTS OR PLAYS.
This strict work ethic has a marked effect on what they
will to do to get the job done. THEY TEND TO ESTABLISH
DEADLINES AND TO TAKE THEM SERIOUSLY, EXPECTING OTHERS TO
DO THE SAME. And they are willing to do all sorts of
preparation, maintenance, and cleaning up afterwards --
just because these are necessary to see the job through to
Not so WITH PROBERS, WHO SEEM MORE PLAYFUL ABOUT THEIR
WORK. THE JOB DOESN'T HAVE TO BE FINISHED BEFORE PLAY OR
REST BEGINS, AND THEY TEND TO LOOK UPON DEADLINES AS MERE
ALARM CLOCKS WHICH BUZZ AT A GIVEN TIME, EASILY TURNED OFF
OR IGNORED WHILE THEY CATCH AN EXTRA FORTY WINKS, ALMOST AS
IF THE DEADLINE WERE USED MORE AS A SIGNAL TO START THAN TO
COMPLETE A PROJECT.
Also, PROBERS are much more insistent that the work be
enjoyable and to the purpose. Indeed, if the given task is
not directly instrumental (is mere preparation,
maintenance, or clean up), then they may balk at doing it,
or WANDER OFF AND LEAVE IT TO SOMEONE ELSE.
This difference extends to the physical environment as
well. SCHEDULERS TEND TO BE NEAT AND ORDERLY. They like
their desk at work to be tidy, and their house picked up --
dishes done, bed made, car washed, and so on. Not that they
always manage all of these chores, but they are unhappy
when their personal space is a mess, and straightening
things up is often near the top of their list.
PROBERS, IN CONTRAST, HAVE A MUCH GREATER TOLERANCE FOR
DISORDER IN THEIR PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT.
They seem absorbed in whatever they're doing or thinking
about at the moment, and are somewhat oblivious to the
details of housekeeping. And so their personal spaces --
office, house, garage, car -- are often cluttered with a
variety of objects they have picked up, used, and then
dropped when they have finished with them.
These two styles -- Oscar and Felix in The Odd Couple --
can get on each other's nerves.
SCHEDULERS CAN BECOME IMPATIENT WITH PROBERS for what seems
their passiveness and playfulness, and can be heard to
describe them as "indecisive" and "foot-dragging,"
as "aimless" and "lazy," as "uncooperative," "quibbling,"
and a "roadblock," as "sloppy" and even "slovenly."
On the other hand, PROBERS CAN BECOME IMPATIENT WITH
SCHEDULERS because of their pressure and urgency, and will
describe them as "in too big a hurry" and "too rule-bound,"
as "driven" and "wearing blinders," as "uptight," "stressed-
out," and "slave-driving," as "arbitrary," "rigid and
inflexible," and even as "neat-freaks."
Usually, such irritation and name-calling will subside when
the two study each other's behavior. Many become fascinated
and entertained by their differences, and with further
understanding find it easy to make allowances for the
other's way. Some can actually come to see that the two
styles are complementary in turning in a job well done:
Probers to spot opportunities and lay out alternatives, and
Schedulers to be timely and press for closure.
To me it suffices to wonder at these secrets and to attempt
humbly to grasp with my mind a mere image of the lofty
structure of all that there is. Albert Einstein [INTP]
I have taken all of knowledge for my province. Francis
Knowledge is power Francis Bacon
Error of opinion maybe tolerated where reason is left free
to combat it. Thomas Jefferson
It is not enough to have a good mind; the main thing is to
use it well. Rene Descartes
Never express yourself more clearly than you think. Neils
But I'm not using those lessons just for theorizing about
the future, I am betting on it. Bill Gates [ENTJ]
What I can not create I can not understand. Richard Feynman
We must know, we will know. David Hilbert
The progress of science is the discovery at each step of a
new order which gives unity to what had seemed unlike.
When Thomas Henry Huxley was chided by a friend for
abandoning the traditional solace of religion he
replied: "Had I lived a couple of centuries earlier I could
have fancied a devil scoffing at me ... and asking me what
profit it was to have stripped myself of the hopes and
consolations of the mass of mankind? To which my only reply
was and is -- Oh devil! truth is better than much profit.
WELL KNOWN RATIONALS : NT (PROMETHEAN)(Phlegmatic)
Arts & Entertainment/Sports/Journalism/Literature
William F. Buckley
Ayn Rand (INTJ)
Dwight D. Eisenhower(INTJ)
Peter the Great (INTJ)
Lise Meitner (INTJ)
Booker T. Washington