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2003-02-17 19:10:48 (UTC)

Diabetes, extended. 1/26/2003


Diabetes


Upon being asked, most people would likely say that the
types of diabetes are Type I and Type II. It is not
altogether correct, however. Type I and Type II diabetes are
the two major subgroups of Diabetes mellitus, but there is
another diabetes disease?Diabetes insipidus. I will briefly
cover Diabetes insipidus before going on to cover diabetes
mellitus.

According to the text book, Diabetes Insipidus is a
metabolic disorder, not involving blood sugar, characterized
by a large output of dilute urine and caused by the
posterior pituitary?s decreased secretion of anti diuretic
hormone. (ADH)

An important thing to note is that Diabetes Insipidus is a
rare metabolic disease that is not related to Diabetes Mellitus.

ADH, Anti-diuretic Hormone, or arginine vasopressin, AVP.
AVP is commonly called an ADH because it increases water
retention by the kidneys. It is produced in the hypothalamus.

An individual with diabetes insipidus may produce as much as
25-30 liters of very dilute urine a day. That is about 15
large soda bottles worth. Solute concentrations in body
fluids rise.

The lact of effect of the ADH on the kidneys causes the
excretion of these large amounts of urine, generally the
only symptoms are excessive thirst and urination.

There are four major types of of Diabetes Insipidus. 1.
Neurogenic, also known as central, hypothalamic, pituitary
or neurohypophyseal is caused by a deficiency of the
antidiuretic hormone, vasopressin. 2. Nephrogenic, also
known as vasopressin-resistant is caused by insensitivity of
the kidneys to the effect of the antidiuretic hormone,
vasopressin. 3. Gestagenic, also known as gestational is
also caused by a deficiency of the antidiuretic hormone,
vasopressin, that occurs only during pregnancy. 4.
Dipsogenic, a form of primary polydipsia is caused by
abnormal thirst and the excessive intake of water or other
liquids.

Minirin is also known as Desmopressin, DDAVP, and Defirin is
the only treatment that I found any reference to in terms of
Diabetes Insipidus Neurogenic. There were no treatments
listed for nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus.

Gestational Diabetes Insipidus is more difficult to treat
than Neurogenic or Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus, because
it can be a short term case of either. Diabetes Insipidus
developed during a pregnancy does not always go away after
the pregnancy is over. If it does dissipate after the
pregnancy, the mother is usually advised not to try to have
another child.

Dipsogenic Diabetes Insipidus is not treatable by
medication. The abnormal excess of water can eventually lead
to kidney failure and death in all types.

4 in 1, 000, 000 people have diabetes insipidus. It is
usually misdiagnosed because it is such a rare disease.

Now, on to Diabetes Mellitus.

Diabetes Mellitus is a very common disease, especially in
comparison to Diabetes Insipidus?Diabetes Mellitus is a
disease that I am sure you all are at least partly familiar
with.

Diabetes Mellitus is a pancreatic disease. It occurs when
the body is unable to secrete or utilize adequate amounts of
the hormone insulin. The job of insulin is to regulate the
level of glucose in the bloodstream by decreasing the rate
of synthesis and release of glucose by the liver while
increasing the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by
other body tissues. Insulin also slows the breakdown of fat
and protein.

Classifications of Diabetes Mellitus:

Secondary Diabetes results from damage to or removal of the
pancreas. Primary Diabetes is caused by both genetic and
environmental factors. It is generally subdivided into
noninsulin dpendent and insulin dependent.

Noninsulin dependent diabetes, also known as Type II
Diabetes mellitus is the most common form of Diabetes
mellitus. Its frequency increases with age. It used to be
called maturity-onset diabetes, but teenagers and young
adults may develop it. It frequently has minimal or no
symptoms. Most Type II diabetes patients are obese. They
frequently have higher insulin concentrations in their
bloodstream than do non diabetics. The insulin is not as
effective though. The cause is unknown, but appears to be in
part hereditary. Type II diabetes is controlled and treated
by caloric restriction and carefully structured diets. It
can be treated with insulin if the caloric restriction does
nto work.

Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus is commonly referred to
as Type I Diabetes Mellitus. These victims are dependent on
insulin injections to stay alive. In the absence of these
injections, patients can develop hyperglycemia, not enough
blood sugar, and a remarkably low blood sugar. This is
treated by IV glucose or glucagons, or if there is an
abnormally high blood sugar patients develop Diabetic
ketoacidosis also referred to as diabetic coma.


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