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2001-08-14 14:46:35 (UTC)

Stop Complaining, this is interesting schtuff!


Eleven new extrasolar planets discovered
BY JEFF FOUST
SPACEFLIGHT NOW


An international team of astronomers announced Thursday the
discovery of 11 new planets orbiting other stars, including
a pair locked in an orbital resonance and another with a
very Earth-like orbit.

The team, led by veteran planet hunter Michel Mayor of
Geneva University in Switzerland, used telescopes in Chile,
France, and Israel to detect the planets, all orbiting Sun-
like stars 28 to 65 parsecs from the Earth.

Among the new 11 planets were a number of interesting
discoveries. Two new solar systems ­ defined as more than
one planet orbiting the same star ­ were discovered. One, HD
74156, features one planet with a minimum mass 1.5 times
that of Jupiter orbiting 40 million kilometers from the
star, and a second 5 times as massive orbiting 725 million
kilometers away, almost the same distance Jupiter is from
the Sun.

Another new planet orbits the star HD 82943, where another
planet was discovered last year. The new planet, just under
90% of the planet Jupiter, orbits 110 million kilometers
from the star and completes an orbit every 222 days,
exactly half the orbital period of the other planet.
Astronomers attribute this to an orbital resonance, when
the gravity of the two planets lock them into marchstep,
and is seen as additional evidence that the planets truly
exist. It's the second such resonant system discovered:
last year astronomers reported finding two planets locked
into a similar "2:1" resonance around the star Gliese 876.

All the planets discovered by Mayor's group are gas giants,
up to ten times the mass of Jupiter, and most lie in orbits
that are either very close to their parent stars or very
distant. However, one, orbiting HD 28185, is about the same
distance from its star as the Earth is from the Sun, and
has a relatively circular orbit, making it one of the most
promising planets for life yet discovered. While it is
unlikely the planet itself could support life -- it is at
least 5.6 times as heavy as Jupiter -- any large moons that
orbit the planet would at least have the right amount of
solar radiation to support Earth-like conditions.

One planet unlikely to support life in any way is the one
found orbiting HD 80606. It has the most eccentric orbit of
any extrasolar planet yet discovered, going between 5 and
127 kilometers from its parent star.

These new planets were detected using the radial velocity
technique, the same method used to find most of the
extrasolar planets discovered to date. The technique looks
for a wobble in the parent star caused by the gravity of
the orbiting planet. That wobble is manifested in the form
a periodic Doppler shift of the spectra of the star, which
is measured by high-resolution spectrographs mounted on
telescopes.

A drawback of the technique is that it can only provide
minimum masses of the planets, since astronomers don't know
if they are viewing the planet's orbit edge-on, which would
maximize the wobble and thus minimize the mass, or nearly
face-on, which would minimize the wobble and thus require a
far more massive planet. Astronomers plan to use new
interferometer systems on telescopes like the Very Large
Telescope in Chile in an attempt to measure the wobbles in
the positions of the stars themselves, and thus better
determine the masses of the planets.


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